Breast Cancer News Mimi review (1) - modifiable factors and breast cancer

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The studies below have been reported on foodconsumer.org in the past two months.   They are summarized for those who want to have an overview.

High intake of folate boosts breast cancer death risk

D. Kang at Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University in Seoul, Republic of Korea and colleagues reported a study in Nutrition Journal suggesting that women who are diagnosed with ER-/PR- breast cancer may be more likely to die if they have a high intake of folate or folic acid.  This is not the only study that offers such a suggestion.

High intake of both vitamin B2 and folate was found associated with nearly 300% increased risk of poor disease free survival, compared with low intake of both nutrients.
 
Healthy diet helps breast cancer survival

A. Vrieling of German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Germany and colleagues reported in British Journal of Cancer that eating a healthy diet may decrease risk of death of all causes in breast cancer patients.  They found women with with stage 1- IIIa breast cancer using a 'healthy' diet were 26 percent less likely to die from all causes and 29 percent less likely to have recurrence of the disease.

The healthy diet had high amounts of fruit, vegetable oil, sauces/condiments, and soups/bouillons and in comparison the unhealthy diet had high amounts of red meat, processed meat and deep frying fat.

Vitamin C may help fight breast cancer

Vitamin C also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate may help prevent breast cancer or delay the progression and inhibit metastasis of these diseases, according to a study released recently in International Journal of Oncology.

Dr. Mathias Rath and his colleagues at Dr Rath Research Institute gave mice that were unable to synthesize vitamin c themselves an ascorbate supplemented diet or a no-vitamin c diet and after four weeks on the diets, mice received by injection 4T1 breast cancer cells and the mice continued using their diets for another two weeks.    Among mice receiving the vitamin c supplement, those receiving 4T1 breast cancer cells had tumor growth reduced by 28 percent, compared to tumor growth in mice that did not use the vitamin C supplemented diet.

Induced abortion ups breast cancer risk
 
C. Yanhua of the First Peoples' Hospital of Kunming in Yunnan province, PR China and colleagues published a study in Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention that confirms that induced abortion can increase risk of breast cancer.
 
Old women were at higher risk than young women for breast cancer.   The researchers found that perimenopausal women were 3-fold more likely and postmenopausal women were 5-fold more likely, compared to premenopausal women to develop breast cancer.

Another study

A.R. Jiang of Jiangsu Province Institute of  Cancer Research in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China and colleagues  reported in Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention that women who had ever had an induced abortion were at an increased risk of developing breast cancer and the more abortions a woman had experienced, the higher the breast cancer risk they had to face.

Specifically, premenopausal women who had an induced abortion three or more times were at 141 percent increased risk of breast cancer.  After adjustment for other confounders, the risk increase was still 55 percent, compared to those who did not experience any. 

Postmenopausal women who had one induced abortion were at 104 percent increased risk for breast cancer and 82 percent increased risk for the disease after adjustment for confounders.   And the risk increased significantly with the number of induced abortion.
  
Alcohol beverage consumption increases breast cancer risk

M.L. Kwan of Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California and colleagues published a study in Cancer Epidemiologgy, Biomarkers & Prevention that suggests drinking some alcohol daily after diagnosis of breast cancer did not seem to increase risk of death from the disease, but may increase recurrence risk, particularly in postmenopausal women.   Alcoholic beverages are officially recognized by the U.S. National Toxicology Program as a human carcinogen.

Passive smoking increases breast cancer risk

J. Luo of Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia and colleagues  reported in British Medical Journal  that of women who had never smoked, those who had intensive passive smoking were almost 32 percent more likely to develop breast cancer, compared to those who were not exposed to passive smoking.

Vitamin C and dietary beta-carotene cut breast cancer risk

G. Nagel of Ulm University in Ulm, Germany and colleagues and published a study in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment suggesting that of postmeopausal women, particularly those using hormone therapy, those who had high dietary intake of vitamin C and dietary beta-carotene were 12%  and 21% less likely to develop breast cancer respectively.

Choline, betaine supplements lower breast cancer risk

Having high intake of choline and betaine may help prevent breast cancer significantly, particularly in women who have low intake of folate, according to a new study in Cancer Science, which was conducted by C.X. Zhang of School of Public Health Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, P.R. China and colleagues.  The study found high intake of choline or betaine was associated with almost 50% reduced risk of breast cancer.

Green tea polyphenols and sulforaphane fight breast cancer
 
Syed M. Meeran of University of Alabama at Birmingham in Birmingham, Alabama, United States and colleagues reported a study in PLos One that found bioactive dietary supplements, that is, green tea polyphenols and sulforaphane, inhibit DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases, respectively in breast cancer cells.
  
Saturated fat linked to breast cancer

A.K. Sczaniecka of The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center , Cancer Prevention Program in Seattle , Washington , USA and colleagues reported in in Nutrition and Cancer that the highest intake of total saturated fatty acids was associated with 47 percent increased risk of breast cancer, compared to the lowest intake.  The risk increase was particularly strong among those with highest intakes of palmitic, margaric, and stearic acids. 
 
Low dose ionizing radiation increases breast cancer risk

A. Pijpe from Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in Amsterdam, Netherlands and colleagues  published a study in Sept 2012 in British Medical Journal that confirmed an early finding that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation such as that used in mammogram screening and other radiation-based diagnostic tools can increase risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations.
  
Women whose exposure doses were in the highest quartile were almost four times as likely as those who were not exposed to diagnostic radiation to develop breast cancer.  Even those whose exposure doses were in the lowest quartile had 63 percent increased risk of the disease.
 
Further, the study showed a pattern: a higher number of radiographs was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in those who were exposed to radiation before age 20 and before age 30, compared with those without exposure to diagnostic procedures.  A history of mammography screening before age 30 was also correlated with an 43 percent increased risk of breast cancer. 
 
Mammogram screening per se increases breast cancer risk 

A study recently published in Cancer Epidemiology has confirmed that women who were false positively diagnosed with breast cancer and subsequently receiving invasive diagnostic examinations a fine-needle aspiration cytology or a biopsy increased the risk of developing breast cancer by 169 % and 81 percent, respectively, compared with those who only received mammogram screening, but not invasive examinations.

Saturated fat linked to high levels of breast cancer promoting hormone

M. Tsuji of Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine in Gifu, Gifu, Japan and colleagues published a study in Cancer Causes and Control that shows that high intake of saturated fat associated with high levels of a female sex hormone, potentially increasing risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women.

Tamoxifen cuts risk of recurrence, but not death risk

H. Staley at North Tyneside General Hospital in North Shields, Tyne & Wear, UK and colleagues published a review in Cochrance Database Systemic Reviews which found evidence to suggest that using tamoxifen after surgery helps prevent recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ, a non-invasive breast cancer, but not reduce the overall death risk.

In two trials of 3375 women with the non-invasive breast cancer, tamoxifen treatment after breast cancer surgery did reduce recurrence of both ipsilateral ductal carcinoma in situ by 25 percent and contralateral ductal carcinoma in situ by 50 percent.  And the treatment also reduce contralateral invasive breast cancer by 43 percent.

Red grape polyphenols fight breast cancer

S. F. Dharmawardhane of Universidad Central del Caribe School of Medicine in Bayamon, Puerto Rico and colleagues reported in Translational oncology that a combination of grape polyphenols at 0.5, 5 or 25 mg/kg significantly reduced the growth of breast cancer xenografts in a nude mouse model.

C.M.  Alfano of National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD and colleagues conducted the study and found fatigue associated with c-reactive protein and high intake of omega-3 fat relieved fatigue. The study was reported in Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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