Infertile men more likely to get prostate cancer, what you can eat to prevent the disease
Infertile men may be at higher risk of developing prostate cancer than fertile men, a new study published in the journal Cancer suggests.
The finding may help design a screening tool for prostate cancer. The screening test, called prostate specific antigen (PSA test), is not reliable and can result in both false positive and false negative diagnosis.
The study showed that men who were diagnosed with infertility are 2.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than those who were not infertile.
Dr. Thomas Walsh of the University of Washington examined data from 22,000 Californian men who visited 15 California infertility centers from 1967 to 1998 and found 1.2 percent of infertile men developed prostate cancer compared to 0.4 percent of the fertile men.
Prostate cancer is diagnosed in more than 170,000 men each year in the United States and kills about 35,000 manually, according to cancer.gov.
Prostate cancer is a largely preventable disease. A healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, can substantially reduce risk of acquiring the disease.
By David Liu and editing by Rachel Stockton
Prostate cancer is largely preventable.
Much research has been done on how foods could affect the risk of prostate cancer. The following are citations from news articles published earlier on foodconsumer.org to give readers a glimpse of what men can do to prevent the disease.
1) A new review published in the September 2007 issue of Nutrition Review showed that eating plant-based diets may help patients with prostate cancer.
The review, conducted by SE Berkow from George Mason University and colleagues, was based on eight observational studies and 17 interventional or laboratory trials on the effect of plant-based diets and plant nutrients on both the progression and clinical outcome of prostate cancer.
2) Drinking black tea may help stop the progression of prostate cancer, suggests a new Indian study published in the September 15 issue of Life Science.
3) Taking lycopene supplements alone or along with soy isoflavones may prohibit the growth of prostate cancer, according to a phase II trial by researchers from Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan.
4) Drinking lots of green tea each day was linked with reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer, but not localized prostate cancer, Japanese researchers found, adding to a growing body of evidence suggesting that green tea may provide protection against cancer.
The study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, found those who drank five or more cups of green tea a day were 48 percent less likely to develop advanced prostate cancer. The association was not seen for localized prostate cancer, though.
5) Taking supplements of soy isoflavones may help men at high risk of prostate cancer, suggests a new study by researchers from the University of Minnesota.
The study, published in the October 2007 issue of the Journal of Nutrition, confirmed early studies that showed an inverse association between isoflavones and prostate cancer in Japanese men.
6) Eating just one serving or more of broccoli and cauliflower per week may reduce the risk of prostate cancer by up to 45 percent, according to a new study published in the August 1, 2007, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
7) Men consuming high levels of soy products rich in isoflavones might be able to drastically reduce the risk of prostate cancer, according to a Japanese study appearing in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Nutrition, a publication of American Society for Nutrition.
8) Increased intake of soy isoflavones may reduce the risk of localized prostate cancer by up to 50%, according to a Japanese study, which also found high intake of soy compounds may worsen advanced prostate cancer.
9) High dietary intake of selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer in certain groups of men, a new study suggests.
The study by Ulrike Peters and colleagues from the Cancer Prevention Program at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle, Washington, and other organizations, found that the possible benefit was not for every man studied, but only for those who reported a high vitamin E intake and those taking multivitamins.
10) Eating tomatoes and broccoli together can maximize their protective effect against prostate cancer, according to a new study published in the January 15 issue of Cancer Research.
Tomatoes and broccoli are two vegetables known for their cancer-fighting properties. But when used together, they are more effective in shrinking prostate tumors than when they are used separately, the new research stressed.
11) Eating just one portion of salmon per week may decrease the risk of prostate cancer by about 43 percent, according to a new study by Swedish researchers, who say the effect is mainly due to the omega-3 fatty acids in the fish.
12) Drinking pomegranate juice may help slow the growth of prostate cancer, suggests a small study published in the July 1 issue of the journal Clinical Cancer Research.
The study, funded by the industry, found it took a longer time for men who drank pomegranate juice to double PSA in their blood. PSA is a protein marker indicating the presence of prostate cancer.
13) A new Italian study says that 50 percent of prostate cancer patients self-reported hypercholesterolemia, and the rate was 80 percent among those who were at the age of 65 or older.
The study, published in a recent issue of the Annals of Oncology, also found that there was an association between high cholesterol and gallstones, although the association was not statistically significant.
14) Eating oily fish or taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements may help prevent the spread of aggressive prostate cancer to other parts of the body, while high intake of omega-6 fatty acids may do the opposite, according to a new UK cancer study.
The study, published online in the March 27 issue of the British Journal of Cancer, found that the type of fatty acids determines how they influence the risk of metastatic prostate cancer. The UK researchers found that omega-3 fatty acids inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells whereas omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid, known as arachidonic acid, promotes the proliferation of malignant prostate epithelial cells.
15) A hot pepper compound known as capsaicin may help men fight prostate cancer, according to a new study published in the March 15 issue of Cancer Research.
The study, led by Soren Lehmann and colleagues from the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and UCLA, found the hot pepper component induced the termination of about 80 percent of prostate cancer cells growing in mice.
16) Calcitriol, an active metabolite of vitamin D and other vitamin D analogs, may help prevent prostate cancer, according to a study presented November 1 at the American Association for Cancer Research's 4th annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting in Baltimore.
17) Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables could be a good defense against prostate cancer, according to a Case Western Reserve University study published in the October online issue of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal.
18) An epidemiological study suggested that the use of vitamin E, both alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
The study involved 100 patients with prostate cancer and 200 cancer-free controls from a population of 29,000 Finnish men.
19) A study suggested that consumption of lycopene and other carotenoids may help prevent prostate cancer.
Researchers of the study interviewed some 500 participants from Southeast China for their dietary habits. Among the participants, 130 had prostate cancer and the rest were cancer-free.
20) A recent study suggested that eating a diet rich in lycopene and vitamin E may protect against prostate cancer.
The study, conducted by Dutch researchers, found that a low dose of lycopene slowed by 50 percent the growth of prostate tumors implanted in mice. When lycopene was used together with vitamin E, the growth of prostate tumors was reduced by 75 percent.
21) Taking high doses of vitamin D may help prevent prostate cancer, according to Dr. John Cannell, an vitamin D expert and director of Vitamin D Council.
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